October 2017
back to front page
" as we know, there are known knowns; there are things we know we know.
We also know there are known unknowns;
that is to say we know there are some things we do not know.
But there are also unknown unknowns - the ones we don't know we don't know ".

Donald Rumsfeld, United States Secretary of Defense, briefing, 2002 ...

the same is true about schizophrenia - it remains a mystery ?

? pruning and Immunity ?

Sekar et al :- Abtract
Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to its tendency to generate greater expression of C4A. Human C4 protein localized to neuronal synapses, dendrites, axons, and cell bodies. In mice, C4 mediated synapse elimination during postnatal development. These results implicate excessive complement activity in the development of schizophrenia and may help explain the reduced numbers of synapses in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia.

the connection of immunity response to a cause of pruning,leading to schizophrenia

Howes etc

If immunity plays a part, might it lead to new treatment ;- go to So, why not have a go.

might it raise questions about capacity to fully understand, to give informed consent.
Side effects of monoclonal anti bodies: Natalizumab

Hippocampal failure is the proximate cause of schizophrenia.

These academic references are those that confirm hippocampus failure So, hippocampus early development is an important start to think how and why things have gone wrong.

Early hippocampus development

perinatal asphyxia and hippocampus damage

Perinatal hippocampus damage

ANATOMY hippocampus

attention fixes hippocampus

two memories co-operates

stress shifts the memory stream

oscillatory traffic

thalamic spindling: background

Comment on spindling

go to Striatum Studies

Hippocampus is a Hub

a Hub like this

email me

a carer site


adolescence is a time of brain 'pruning'.
It is also the time when schizophrenia most commonly starts, the florid illness preceded often by a time of cognitive and life coping failure.

What is pruning 'doing'
networking templates

Structural brain modules become more segregated during youth
Targeted strengthening of hub edges simultaneously promotes network efficiency
Enhanced modular segregation mediates improvements in executive function in youth. The human brain is organized into large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood and adolescence.
Evolving modular topology facilitates global network efficiency and is driven by age-related strengthening of hub edges present both within and between modules.
Critically, both modular segregation and network efficiency are associated with enhanced executive performance and mediate the improvement of executive functioning with age.

Together, results delineate a process of structural network maturation that supports executive function in youth.

New August 2017 :-

Human Brains need the structure of a a Story

Gazzinga. studying 'splitbrain' patients done for epilepsy suppresion concluded that the left brain does the cognitive and analytic work: the right brain organising the sensory/motor networks.

New hippocampus academic research

hippocampus enhances sensory responses.


prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupts regional cognitive functions (including prefrontal attention and hippocampal memory function

Important - current academic references
back to front page