A UK website, principally for carers about and carers for schizophrenia; family, community, and professional service caring, who should - must ! - give voice for the best interests of those cared for they can't, they won't, they don't, voice for themselves.
The site is edited by a retired psychiatrist who has looked after someone with the schizophrenia condition, at home, affected by the negative form of schizophrenia, for the last twenty years. [The blue highlit links take you to another page.. ] You return via the back arrow at the top of your screen or from a link at the bottom of a page
Schizophrenia continues because the hippocampus area of the brain produces only half the new cells that the normal hippocampus proliferatesThe academic papers that explain schizophrenia and why and /how the illness continues to be, will be put together in this companion website....
This website will updated monthly with anything appropriate that may develop an improvement for those with schizophrenia either better caring for themselves; and/or better for those caring for them.
The Editor accepts this as a scientific fact - from the replication by Allen et al, 2015 ( vide infra ), after a nine years delay !!!, of the finding by Reif et al in 2006, that those with continuing schizophrenia have to try to manage normal day to day living adjustments, to complete their intentions, with HALF only of the hippocampal new cell proliferation that their normal peer groups require, to do be able to do so..
New each month
... go back to february adolescent pruningMarch 2016: Experimental situations with mice in the course of looking for food areas , support the notion that what is selected from what is going on outside each day,and held by the new cells in the hippocampus to be valuable information for the brain to know about, is uploaded to the executive function in the brain and 'consolidated' during the short wave sleep. i.e. Joining the networks that store such information for use when appropriate. [ in schizophrenia this selection and subsequent 'consolidation' has to be done with half the new cells that are ordinarily made available - so likely not successfully updating and placing for useful further experience}
They cannot move on in their lives as they should, with only what was the experience stored before the illness arrives .
When schizophrenia arrives during adolescence and early adulthood, they have not the level of store to cope with a daily world that brings new matters to be dealt with in daily living.This the explanation for those who are able to stay in their family of upbringing and in the same house and in the same area HAVE built up enough 'living rules' that are appropriate for where they live now and are less likely to break down.
Those with illness arriving in later life, are beter equipped in matured experience to cope better.
1. what carers should know about the system, the structure and functioning of the clinical services in their area. [ under construction
Carers and those who live day to day with the illness have no doubts that it is an illness.
There is a break change in observed behaviour from before, sometime placing the person in alien behaviour, to their disadvantage, which they are unable to reverse themselves to regain the previous state.
The illness continues on it's 'course' to be continuing schizophrenia with the same pattern of behaviour and misbelief, as an autonomous system, isolating the person from others, who cannot identify with the changed behaviour by using their own experience to .understand it.
Q. What has happened? A. The crucial failure
The disabling brain change is a failure to sustain new cell formation [ neurogenesis ] in the hippocampus area of the brain.
[ In 2006 a study, found in continuing schizophrenia reduced new cell activity in the hippocampus
- !! for 9 years
The change in the brain that lead into continuing schizophrenia Reif et al 2006 - Reif et al 2006
the most important finding
NOW Replicated and Confirmed !!! - by Allen et al Here, replicated and confirmed in a different group of people with continuing schizophrenia.Now it must be accepted
NINE YEARS, having to wait !!!!
... [ Allen et al :- - if linking is difficult go to this Quote
We find a decrease in cell proliferation in the anterior hippocampus of people with schizophrenia, confirming the results of previous studies that have suggested a deficit in hippocampal cell proliferation and of neurogenesis in schizophrenia [ Reif et al ] in an independent cohort. Our results are consistent with those of Reif; however, we found a slightly larger decrease in Ki67 expression, 60% in the current study vs. 50% in Reif et al. ]
It is a stem cell failure in the hippocampus of the brain in those with schizophrenia.
Normally the hippocampus new cells function as ' a gatekeeper' to take from incoming environment observations - whats new, going on outside around me - only what is a useful addition to stored away skill and experience. The new cells hold on to it temporarily. The new material may be advantageous, but also maybe'see' a possible 'threat' that needsattention and to be stored as experience What is taken in comes with its useful context.
Once consolidated in the brain long term memory the temporary new information fades away leaving succeeding new cells to continue the updating.
Once the information is updated, the hippocampus will later take part in retrieving from store whatever context information is to be carried 'in mind' so as to deal with what ever crops up in daily living , putting together in sequence the relevant contexts. Sufferers from schizophrenia have to try to manage daily life problems and coping decisions with half the new hippocampal cells that those without the illness NEED to have available so as to be able deal and move on in their lives.Schizophrenia fails because of this working memory failure.
People suffering to any extent from continuing schizophrenia often experience incoming stimulus information overload from their environment.
Foerde et al
memory overload: what happens 'normally'
" [ Here, we present results from functional neuroimaging showing that the presence of a demanding secondary task during learning modulates the degree to which subjects solve a problem using either declarative memory or habit learning. Dual-task conditions did not reduce accuracy but reduced the amount of declarative learning about the task. Medial temporal lobe activity was correlated with task performance and declarative knowledge after learning under single-task conditions, whereas performance was correlated with striatal activity after dual-task learning conditions. ]
They are less able 'to see to it' that the 'useful' goes to the flexible hippocampal consolidation stream, from which the chaff is excluded.
With half only of the new cells in the hippocampus some non salient incoming sensory material will bypass the hippocampus, instead getting into the striatal procedural stream , to be wrongly consolidated as salient material , which will not make sense, and so likely go to consolidation in REM sleep, to be made 'sense' of, as a delusional system, relatively inflexible, under circumstances of anxiety.
Information gets into the wrong memory stream, and is less flexibly available. Calling up from memory store what is required to be able to react to things that need attention, can only give poor context to any intention tthat is to be executed.
They do not move on in their lives stuck at the level of ability and useful experience that they have at the age the illness arrived. Information that passes the hippocampal new cell sorting, will be consolidated in another memory stream tthrought the different route which deals with automated network storage , inot an autonomous delusional explanation.
Those who go on to continuing schizophrenia do so because the hippocampus region in their brain - the gate-keeper between the inside and the outside world - has to manage this with half only the new cell provision to the hippocampal functioning that heathy people needs to be available to be able to cope with all the changes in day to day living - sorting out the wheat - necessary, from the chaff - ignore
People with continuing schizophrenia suffer from incoming information overload [ as in normal overload
Fuerte et al 2006 ] with poor background context
That is why reducing the information load in a daily life, providing a fixed routine, in a reduced setting helps, where regularity and repetition with plenty of uninterrupted time and less going on, is a relieving care situation.
The hippocampal gate-keeping function - keeping out irrelevant information whilst allowing in useful experience - can't cope with only half the usual hippocampal new cell provision - its anxiously unsettling - letting some incoming stimuli to go directly, 'uncensored ' ,
to the striatal memory net work - normally used for procedural learning - habits - grammar bicycle riding: relative to the hippocampal stream where stored material can be consciouly sought, the striatal route is less flexible, less conscious, less accessible, uses a different net work to consolidate what it has taken in, and where dopamine imprints value on what is passing through.
Stand out material that gets into storage this way is abnormal, carries anxiety with it, yet has to be dealt with , given an account in some way - so becomes consolidated as an explanatory delusional system, normally segregated , but returned to when stress/anxiety returns .
Less intact 'working memory' means at the age the illness arrives they do not , cannot, move on in their lives.
The earlier the illness arrives the less accumulated store of experienced information is there to cope with what crops up during the day .
An active working memory is what keeps you up to date: keeps you going. Without new cell proliferation in the hippocampus workimg memory is not sustained.
Finally. When and how does the brain change happen. perinatal damage