SchizophreniaWatch :-February 2016: ....
New ...
It is known that around the age of adolescence the brain discards many neurons and their connections - so called 'pruning'. It's the common age for schizophrenia to develop.
The Broad Institute researchers [ pruning ]

have presented studies that show that a mechanism used during immunity developed aginst infection - a labelling of the pathogens by 'Complement A' - marks the pathogens for destruction, is also seen as a structural variant, more commonly in those who develop schizophrenia, suggesting the 'over pruning' might account for schiziphrenia developing around the age of adolescence and early adulthood.
It is now confirmed that those with continuing schizophrenia have only half the continual new cell production in schizophrenia that is required by normal users to get on with their daily living.
They have to try [and fail ] to manage their daily lives with only half the new hippocampal stem new cell production that those without schizophrenia find necessary to put to work to get their daily intentions into effective completion. Is this a result of local over pruning ?


A UK website, principally for carers about and carers for schizophrenia; family, community, and professional service caring, who should - must ! - give voice for the best interests of those cared for they can't, they won't, they don't, voice for themselves.

The site is edited by a retired psychiatrist who has looked after someone with the schizophrenia condition, at home, affected by the negative form of schizophrenia, for the last twenty years. [The blue highlit links take you to another page.. ] You return via the back arrow at the top of your screen or from a link at the bottom of a page


contact me if you want to help me out with my views, email about some issue of caring service that is promising, or unsettled and unsettling or text to (44) (0)7547153244

There is a limited general psychiatry section links The academic papers that give an understanding of schizophrenia and why/how the illness continues to be, will be put together in this companion website.
brain and schizophrenia

Page 2.
1. what carers should know about the structure and functioning of the clinical services in their area. [ under construction ]

A salutary - if brutal - account of how things can go wrong in Mental Health Community Services. a remarkable and useful website to learn from victims' experience in the mental health services

Page 2.
1. what carers should know about the structure and functioning of the clinical services in their area. [ under construction ]



What carers should know about the illness schizophrenia, and its difficulties. Then they will better be able to know what support [ revising ] will help them with their difficulties


Carers and those who live day to day with the illness have no doubts that it is an illness.

There is a break change in observed behaviour from before, sometime placing the person in alien behaviour, to their disadvantage, which they are unable to reverse themselves to regain the previous state.
The illness continues on it's 'course' to be continuing schizophrenia with the same pattern of behaviour and misbelief, as an autonomous system, isolating the person from others, who cannot identify with the changed behaviour by using their own experience to .understand it.


Q. What has happened? A. The crucial failure

The disabling brain change is a failure to sustain new cell formation [ neurogenesis ] in the hippocampus area of the brain.

[ In 2006 a study, found in continuing schizophrenia reduced new cell activity in the hippocampus

This is the original finding - ignored !! for 9 years. The change in the brain that lead into continuing schizophrenia Reif et al 2006 - Reif et al 2006

the most important finding

NOW Replicated and Confirmed !!! - by Allen et al Here, replicated and confirmed in a different group of people with continuing schizophrenia.Now it must be accepted

NINE YEARS, having to wait !!!!

... [ Allen et al :- - if linking is difficult go to this Quote
We find a decrease in cell proliferation in the anterior hippocampus of people with schizophrenia, confirming the results of previous studies that have suggested a deficit in hippocampal cell proliferation and of neurogenesis in schizophrenia [ Reif et al ] in an independent cohort. Our results are consistent with those of Reif; however, we found a slightly larger decrease in Ki67 expression, 60% in the current study vs. 50% in Reif et al. ]


Normally the hippocampus new cells function to take from incoming environment observation, only what is a useful addition to stored away skill and experience. They hold on to it temporarily.
What is taken in comes with the useful context.

Once consolidated in the brain long term memory the temporary new information fades away leaving succeeding new cells to continue the updating.
Once the information is updated, the hippocampus will later take part in retrieving from store whatever information is to be carried 'in mind' so as to deal with what ever crops up in daily living , putting together in sequence the relevant contexts. Sufferers from schizophrenia have to try to manage daily life problems and coping decisions with half the new hippocampal cells that those without the illness NEED to have to be able deal and move on progressing in their lives.

Schizophrenia continues because of this working memory failure.

People suffering to any extent from continuing schizophrenia are producing only half the proliferating new hippocampal cells. They often experience incoming stimulus information overload from their environment.
Foerde et al
memory overload: what happens 'normally'
They do not sort out the useful from the chaff. Information gets into the wrong memory stream, and is less flexibly available. Calling up from memory store what is required to be able to react to things that need doing can only provide poor context to the intention tthat is to be executed. They do not move on in their lives stuck at the level of ability and useful experience that they have at the age the illness arrived. Information that passes the hippocampal new cell sorting, will be consolidated in another memory stream tthrought the different route which deals with automated network storage , inot an autonomous delusional explanation.


Those who go on to continuing schizophrenia do so because the hippocampus region in their brain - the gate-keeper between the inside and the outside world - has to manage this with only half the new cell provision to the hippocampal functioning that heathy people require to be available to be able to cope with all the changes in day to day living - sorting out the wheat - necessary, from the chaff - ignore

People with continuing schizophrenia suffer from incoming information overload [ as in normal overload

Fuerte et al 2006 ]with poor background context
That is why reducing the information load in a daily life, providing a fixed routine, in a reduced setting helps, where regularity and repetition with plenty of uninterrupted time and less going on, is a relieving care situation.

The hippocampal gate-keeping function - keeping out irrelevant information whilst allowing in useful experience - can't cope with only half the usual hippocampal new cell provision - its anxiously unsettling - letting some incoming stimuli to go directly, 'uncensored ' ,
to the striatal memory net work - normally used for procedural learning - habits - grammar bicycle riding: relative to the hippocampal stream where stored material can be consciouly sought, the striatal route is less flexible, less conscious, less accessible, uses a different net work to consolidate what it has taken in, and where dopamine imprints value on what is passing through.

Stand out material that gets into storage this way is abnormal, carries anxiety with it, yet has to be dealt with , given an account in some way - so becomes consolidated as an explanatory delusional system, normally segregated , but returned to when stress/anxiety returns .



Less intact 'working memory' means at the age the illness arrives they do not , cannot, move on in their lives.
The earlier the illness arrives the less accumulated store of experienced information is there to cope with what crops up during the day .

An active working memory is what keeps you up to date: keeps you going. Without new cell proliferation in the hippocampus workimg memory is not sustained.


Finally. When and how does the brain change happen. perinatal damage