NEW interest each month
A UK website, principally for carers about and carers for schizophrenia; family, community, and professional service caring, who should - must ! - give voice for the best interests of those cared for they can't, they won't, they don't, voice for themselves.
The site is edited by a retired psychiatrist who has looked after someone with the schizophrenia condition, at home, affected by the negative form of schizophrenia, for the last twenty years. [The blue highlit links take you to another page.. ] You return via the back arrow at the top of your screen or from a link at the bottom of a page
contact me if you want to help me out with my views, email about some issue of caring service that is promising, or unsettled and unsettling or text to (44) (0)7547153244
There is a limited general psychiatry section .... links
Page 1. The cause of Schizophrenia
..... [ Page 2. How carers should help those who have the illness. ]
Schizophrenia continues - and therefore probably starts - because the hippocampus area of the brain in schizophrenia produces only half the new stem cells that the normal hippocampus proliferates.
At onset the volume of the hippocampus in schizophrenia is reduced
Hippocampal memory mangement fails in schizophrenia
The Editor accepts this as a scientific fact - because of the replication by Allen et al, 2015 ( vide infra ), after a nine years delay !!!, of the finding by Reif et al in 2006
- that those with continuing schizophrenia have to try to manage normal day to day living , to complete their intentions,
with HALF only, of the hippocampal new cell proliferation that their normal peer groups require, to be able so to do.
In schizophrenia, the selection of what to attend to, and how to do that, the subsequent 'consolidation' that updates this into useable experience , has to be done with half the new cells that are ordinarily made available - so likely no successful updating and placing of useful further experience.
They cannot move on in their lives as they should, with only what was the experience stored before the illness arrives .
When schizophrenia arrives during adolescence and early adulthood, they have not the level of store to cope with a daily world that brings new matters to be dealt with in daily living. This is the explanation for those who are able to stay in better health, in their family of upbringing. In the same house and in the same area they HAVE built up enough 'living rules' that are appropriate for where they live now and are so less likely to break down.
Those with illness arriving in later life, are better equipped in matured experience to cope better.
Q. What has happened to bring about schizophrenia? A. The crucial failure
The disabling brain change is a failure to sustain new cell formation [ neurogenesis ] in the hippocampus area of the brain.
[ In 2006 a study, found in continuing schizophrenia reduced new cell activity in the hippocampus
- !! for 9 years
The change in the brain that lead into continuing schizophrenia Reif et al 2006 - Reif et al 2006
the most important finding
NOW Replicated and Confirmed !!! - by Allen et al Here, replicated and confirmed in a different group of people with continuing schizophrenia.Now it must be accepted
NINE YEARS, having to wait !!!!
... [ Allen et al :- - if linking is difficult go to this Quote
We find a decrease in cell proliferation in the anterior hippocampus of people with schizophrenia, confirming the results of previous studies that have suggested a deficit in hippocampal cell proliferation and of neurogenesis in schizophrenia [ Reif et al ] in an independent cohort. Our results are consistent with those of Reif; however, we found a slightly larger decrease in Ki67 expression, 60% in the current study vs. 50% in Reif et al. ]
It is a stem cell failure of new cell proliferation in the hippocampus of the brain in those with schizophrenia.
Normally the hippocampus new cells function as ' a gatekeeper' to take from incoming environment observations - whats new, going on outside around me - only what is a useful addition to stored away skill and experience. The new cells hold on to it temporarily. The new material may be advantageous, but also maybe'see' a possible 'threat' that will need future attention and so has to be stored as experience What is taken in from 'outside' comes with its useful context.
Once consolidated in the brain long term memory the temporary new information fades away leaving succeeding new cells to continue the updating.
Once the information is updated, the hippocampus will later take part in retrieving from store whatever context information is to be carried 'in mind' so as to deal with what ever crops up in daily living , putting together in sequence the relevant contexts. Sufferers from schizophrenia have to try to manage daily life problems, and these life coping decisions with half the new hippocampal cells that those without the illness NEED to have available so as to be able deal and move on in their lives.
Schizophrenia fails because of this working memory failure.
People suffering to any extent from continuing schizophrenia because of the reduced hippocampal new cell provision cannot disentangle all the incoming environmental stimuli. They will experience incoming stimulus information overload from their environment.
Foerde et al
describes memory overload: what happens 'normally'
" [ Here, we present results from functional neuroimaging showing that the presence of a demanding secondary task during learning modulates the degree to which subjects solve a problem using either declarative memory or habit learning. Dual-task conditions did not reduce accuracy but reduced the amount of declarative learning about the task. Medial temporal lobe activity was correlated with task performance and declarative knowledge after learning under single-task conditions, whereas performance was correlated with striatal activity after dual-task learning conditions. ]
Peole with schizophrnia are less able 'to see to it' that the 'useful' goes to the flexible hippocampal consolidation stream, from which the chaff 'noise' is excluded.
With half only of the new cells in the hippocampus, some non salient incoming sensory material will bypass the hippocampal stream, instead getting into the striatal procedural stream , to be wrongly consolidated as salient material , which will not make sense, will carry anxiety. So it is likely go to consolidation in REM sleep, to be made 'sense' of, as a delusional system, relatively inflexible, taking over under circumstances of any stress or unresolved anxiety.
Information gets into the wrong memory stream, and is less flexibly available. Calling up from memory store what is required to be able to react to things that need attention, can only give continuing poor context to any intention that is to be executed.
They do not move on in their lives stuck at the level of ability and useful experience that they have at the age the illness arrived.
Information that passes the hippocampal new cell sorting 'office', will be consolidated in another memory stream tthrought the different route which deals with automated network storage , inot an autonomous delusional explanation.
Those who go on to continuing schizophrenia do so because the hippocampus region in their brain - the gate-keeper between the inside and the outside world - has to manage this with half only the new cell provision to the hippocampal functioning that heathy people needs to be available to be able to cope with all the changes in day to day living - sorting out the wheat - necessary, from the chaff - ignore
People with continuing schizophrenia suffer from incoming information overload [ as in normal overload
Fuerte et al 2006 ] with poor background context
That is why reducing the information load in a daily life, providing a fixed routine, in a reduced setting helps, where regularity and repetition with plenty of uninterrupted time and less going on, is a relieving care situation.
The hippocampal gate-keeping function - keeping out irrelevant information whilst allowing in useful experience - can't cope with only half the usual hippocampal new cell provision - its anxiously unsettling - letting some incoming stimuli to go directly, 'uncensored ' ,
to the striatal memory net work - normally used for procedural learning - habits - grammar bicycle riding: relative to the hippocampal stream where stored material can be consciouly sought, the striatal route is less flexible, less conscious, less accessible, uses a different net work to consolidate what it has taken in, and where dopamine imprints value on what is passing through.
Stand out material that gets into storage this way is abnormal, carries anxiety with it, yet has to be dealt with , given an account in some way - so becomes consolidated as an explanatory delusional system, normally segregated , but returned to when stress/anxiety returns .
Less intact 'working memory' means at the age the illness arrives they do not , cannot, move on in their lives.
The earlier the illness arrives the less accumulated store of experienced information is there to cope with what crops up during the day .
Schizophrenia arriving later will have already acquired a store of living experience, will cope better., even though retaining delusional influence.
An active working memory is what keeps you up to date: keeps you going. Without new cell proliferation in the hippocampus workimg memory is not sustained.
Finally. When and how does the brain change happen. perinatal damage